Joan of Arc: military leader, national heroine and Saint

Joan of ArcThanks to Elena Maria Vidal for her beautiful post on the Maiden of Orléans. Indeed today we celebrate her holiday.

Like every other French child, I learned about Jeanne d’Arc in elementary school. Of all the characters I encountered in the course of my history lessons, she was the one who left the strongest impression on my young mind.

Years later, at the beginning of my career as an attorney, I read the transcripts of her trials. Time has passed, but my admiration for Jeanne (or Jehanne, as her name was spelled then) has remained the same. To me, she is one of the most extraordinary and beautiful figures in history.

Who would ever believe this story if it were not true? An illiterate peasant girl of 16 is entrusted with an army, proceeds to win decisive victories, turns the tide of a war that had been raging for a hundred years, is captured in battle, is tried as a heretic and is burned at the stake at the age of 19?

Jehanne was born in 1412 into a peasant family from Lorraine, in eastern France. The country, at the time of the Hundred Years’ War, was divided between the victorious King of England, who also claimed the crown of France, and the legitimate heir, who did not even go by the name of King, and was content with the title of Dauphin.

At the age of 13, Jehanne has a series of visions where Saint Catherine, Saint Margaret and the Archangel Michael appear to her. The three Saints prompt her throw the English invaders out of the country and crown the Dauphin. A tall order for a teenager of the lowest social status.

But Jehanne is a woman of faith. She simply leaves home and sets out to accomplish her mission. She tries to enlist in the armies of the Dauphin and is of course rejected. But she is not discouraged, and the amazing thing is that people, far from mocking her, listen to her. Thanks to her piety and extraordinary charisma, she develops a following among the poor and the nobility alike. Some courtiers even convince the Dauphin to receive her. He is understandably suspicious of this unknown girl and has one of his friends sit in the place of honor during the audience, while he himself remains standing. Jehanne, of course, is not fooled and walks directly to him to address him.

Joan of Arc manuscript marginHe is so impressed by her that he soon entrusts her with an army. Then another amazing happens: Jehanne , in spite of her 16 years and total lack of military training, turns out to be an outstanding leader. Let us listen to one of her comrades, who testified at her second trial:

In all she did, except in affairs of war, she was a very
simple young girl; but for things of war, such as bearing the lance, assembling an
army, ordering military operations, directing artillery, she was most skilled.
Everyone marveled that she could act with as much wisdom and foresight as a
captain who had fought for twenty or thirty years. It was above all in the
use of artillery that she was so wonderful.

She forces the English to lift the siege of Orléans (hence the affectionate name of Maiden of Orléans.) And she goes on to win victory and victory. The French troops go from demoralization to elation. Jehanne frees the road to Reims, where French Kings are traditionally crowned.

In France the coronation of the King had a meaning that is difficult to imagine today, and had no equivalent in other countries even at the time. It was not simply an official occasion for pomp and pageantry. It was a religious ceremony, whereby the newly crowned King became akin to a priest.  It had a tremendous symbolic and political impact. For a masterful scholarly analysis of the issue, read Marc Bloch’s Les Rois Thaumaturges (The Healer Kings) translated into English under the – atrocious – title The Royal Touch: Monarchy and Miracles in France and England.

So Jehanne attends the coronation of the Dauphin, who, thanks to her, becomes King Charles VII. Other military operations follow, during which the aura of Jehanne develops. Many already consider her as a Saint.

After her exploits, she is invited to take some rest in a chateau, but she decides to join the partisans of the French King to Compiègne, then besieged by the Bourguignons, allied to the English. During a sortie, she falls from her horse and cannot get back to her feet. Her armor weighed well over 40 pounds. The Bourguignons seize her, only to sell her to their English allies.

She attempts unsuccessfully to escape, but is taken to Rouen, in Normandy, still controlled by the English. Her trial for heresy is conducted by Bishop Cauchon. He too takes his directions from the English rulers. Jehanne is jailed under dreadful conditions. When berated by Cauchon for still wearing male clothing, she replies that it allows her to better fight her guards whenever they attempt to rape her.  In the face of her judges’ questions on disputed points of theology, she answers with courage, clarity and intelligence. And let us not forget that she still cannot read and write. She only learned to sign her first name. Yes, it is her signature below.

The outcome of the trial is a foregone conclusion. She is found guilty of blasphemy and heresy and sentenced to be burned at the stake. When taken to the place of execution, she loses her courage at the sight of the pyre. This may be the most moving part of the story: Jehanne is after all human, she is 19, and she recoils from a horrible death.

She accepts a bargain whereby she will be jailed in a Church prison for life if she confesses to lying about her visions. Instead she is still kept in an English jail. She understands that she had been tricked and recants. Cauchon and the other judges reinstate her death sentence. Her jailers then rape her and beat her so hard that she is disfigured, which may explain why she is burned with a veil over her face.

She faces her execution without any further hesitation. She cries three times “Jesus” before her body is consumed by the flames. Unusual precautions are taken for it to be thoroughly cremated, and her ashes are thrown into the Seine River to prevent them from being kept as the relics of a Saint.

Over 20 years later, the Hundred Years War is over and Rouen has been retaken by the French. At the request of Jehanne’s mother, King Charles VII and the Pope order a new trial, which rehabilitates her memory and makes her officially a martyr.

If you want to know more about Jehanne, read the transcripts of both of her trials. The first one was a clumsy, fraudulent and failed attempt at discrediting her, the second one is the record of her contemporaries’ testimony on her life. An extremely moving read.

Joan of Arc signature

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24 Comments to “Joan of Arc: military leader, national heroine and Saint”

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  2. Richard says:

    Good for you!

  3. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    I don’t own a car any more! I am privileged to live in Paris intra muros and rely on buses, the metro, trains and airplanes (and friends’ cars too, to be candid.)

  4. Richard says:

    It is faster than “une bagnole poussive.” Does your plate end in 75?

  5. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    Thank you! The train will do for me. Cheaper, safer, faster…

  6. Richard says:

    I have not forgotten her or her sisters.
    Have a good trip, Taking a train or driving?

  7. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    This is amazing! I am going tomorrow to Caen for the birthday of one of my best friends. I will do a quick post on it later today. I was born in Normandy, and my mother is of Normand descent, while my late father was from Auvergne.
    Speaking of famous daughters of Normandy, let us forget dear Therese de Lisieux.

  8. Richard says:

    Until today I did not know you were a Norman. Yes we may have to meet. Genevieve is planning to take her Class to France sometime in 2009. She has asked her mother and I to go as shaperones. There is a good possibility I will take her up on her offer. I have never been in Metropolitan France only the island of a particular Ogre…

    I will have to pick up a copy of Simone Bertiere’s tome. My French as I say is slow.

    Below I have listed some articles I published about Normandies other most famous woman, (other than you of course)
    Charlotte Corday. I have admired her a long time. it is one of my most read articles. …And a page on Odo and the Bayeux tapestry.

    http://lefleurdelystoo.blogspot.com/2007/12/charlotte-corday-short-biography.html

    and

    http://lefleurdelystoo.blogspot.com/2008/03/last-letter-of-charlotte-corday.html

    and

    http://lefleurdelystoo.blogspot.com/search?q=odo

  9. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    We’ll have to speak “live” some day, Monsieur de Brantigny.
    And I wish someone would translate Simone Bertiere’s beautiful bio of Marie-Antoinette into English! I know Elena loves it too. Have you read it?

  10. Richard says:

    My French is awful. Though I can read it tolerably, I haven’t spoken in it in years, and I am afraid that I(as my daughter Genevieve says) have a decided (she says quaint) Quebecois accent.

    I wish someone would translate Trianon and Madame Royale into French.

  11. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    Thank you so much, Richard, for the link!
    Poetry is always horrendously difficult to translate, but the Ditie definitely deserves better. Medevial French is so beautifully evocative.
    This reminds me of Villon, and his reference to “Jehanne, la bonne Lorraine, qu’Anglois brulerent a Rouen.”
    I have been working on a post on Balzac’s Eugenie Grandet, but how could I ignore Christine de Pisan and Villon?

  12. richard says:

    If you are looking for the ditie you may find it here… both in medieval French and in the (godon) English translation.

    http://www.smu.edu/ijas/cdepisan/text.html

    Richard

  13. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    Lucy – I think that the fact that she was a woman was very significant to her followers, male and female. I can’t find Christine’s poem and it is apparently not on the Gutenberg site either.
    http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/p#a4613
    Would you mind sending it to me? I would love to post it here.

  14. Lucy Pick says:

    One of my favourite texts is the poem Christine de Pisan wrote about Joan of Arc. It is fascinating because it was written at the height of her success before her capture by the English and it shows how at least one woman responded to her when her future still looked bright. For Christine, it was very significant that Joan was a woman.

  15. Richard says:

    I believe that given the opportunity he would not have been strong enough to have Freed Jehanne. 1st, she was too far behind the English lines. 2nd, Le Hire attempted to free the Maid by force but was repulsed. The English (Jehanne called them godons, because The English were so found Of using goddamn) would have killed her.

    Although the French won the 100 hyw it was by the grace of God. God snatched victory from the English. As the Maid said, “…the men will fight and God will provide the victory.”

    Jehanne would not have been martyred had she been rescued or escaped.

  16. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    Done! and thank you for visiting and commenting, Richard.

  17. Richard says:

    Thank you for your reply to my comments and your positive responce.
    I would be honoured to be added to your blogroll.
    Richard

  18. Thank you, Richard, for clarifying. I couldn’t believe Charles could abandon Jehanne with no remorse after all she’d done for him. You’ve made me want to read more about the whole situation! And thanks for all the interesting information on your blog.

  19. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    Thank you, Elena! I am honored to participate in the celebration of Jehanne’s life and message.

  20. Magnifique! I am moved to tears!

  21. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    Thank you so much, Richard, for this clarification on Charles. You remind us of the dire political connotations of the heresy charges against Jehanne for someone like him, who must have suffered, in modern parlance, of low self-esteem.

    Do you think that he might have been able to free Jehanne, if he had tried?

    Very interesting post on Le Hire, by the way. If you don’t mind, I would like to add you to my blogroll. And I hope your daughter liked it in Angers. Wonderful school, city and region. I can’t believe no one in her class had heard of Jehanne…

  22. Richard says:

    Julianne, Charles may be castigated in this day and time, but in the 15th century you have to remember that Jehanne was condemned by an ecclesiastic court. She had been condemned as a witch and a heretic. Should he actively pursue a move to free Jehanne he could be accused of witchcraft himself and more his right to reign could be called into jeopardy.

    Charles, was already under a dark cloud, his mother, a woman of rather loose morals, (really loose) denied his legitimacy, of the children in that family he was the third or fourth Dauphin, his brothers (and sisters except one) having died before him. He doubted his own right.

    The companion of the Maid, one called le Hire did in fact attempt to free the maid but it came to nothing. Jehanne herself attempted escape, by jumping from her prison tower. She related that her Voices thoroughly chastised her for it, and assured her she would be freed.
    I believe at first she believed she would be freed from the English, but came to understand it meant her earthly prison.

    Charles was a man who suffered form pangs of guilt. I am sure if he did not because of his failure to aid her it was because the maid told him that her journey would end in her death and that it was Gods will.

    Charles WAS instrumental in the Trial of Rehabilitation after the War with England ended.

    No one seems to have blamed Charles then, of abandoning her to her fate. So how can we?

    see my blog on le Hire @
    http://lefleurdelystoo.blogspot.com/2008/03/tienne-de-vignolles-companion-of-maid.html

    Richard

  23. CATHERINE DELORS says:

    Good question, Julianne!
    The consensus seems to be that he washed his hands off her fate after her capture.

  24. Wonderful post, Catherine! My question–did Charles VII try to free Jehanne from the Bourgignons/English, or did he simply abandon her to her fate?

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