Emma, Lady Hamilton, seen by Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun

I enjoy following Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, one the most famous and successful portraitists of her time, to the private apartments of Queen Marie-Antoinette at Versailles, to Regency England, or to the salons of Napoléon’s sisters. Today we will accompany Madame Vigée-Lebrun to Italy, where she emigrated as early as 1789, at the onset of the French Revolution. After visiting the court of Turin, then Rome, she headed for Naples, where reigned Queen Maria Carolina of Austria, Marie-Antoinette’s elder (and favorite) sister. The British ambassador there, in the midst of the international political turmoil, was no other than Sir William Hamilton. His companion was a young beauty, Amy Lyon, who went by the name of Emma Hart. Let us listen to Madame Lebrun’s Memoirs, as she recalls her acquaintance with the future Lady Hamilton:

Sir William Hamilton, the British Ambassador to Naples, came to me and begged that my first portrait in this town should be that of the splendid woman he presented to me. This was Madame Hart, who soon after became Lady Hamilton, and who was famous for her beauty… I then painted Madame Hart as a bacchante reclining by the edge of the sea, holding a goblet in her hand. Her beautiful face had much animation… she had a great quantity of fine chestnut hair, sufficient to cover her entirely, and thus, as a bacchante with flying hair, she was admirable to behold.


Vigee-Lebrun: Lady Hamilton as Ariadne

The life of Lady Hamilton is a romance. Her maiden name was Emma Lyon. Her mother, it is said, was a poor servant, and there is some disagreement as to her birthplace. At the age of thirteen she entered the service of an honest townsman of Hawarden as a nurse, but, tired of the dull life she led, and believing she could obtain a more agreeable situation in London, she betook herself thither. The Prince of Wales told me that he had seen her at that time in wooden shoes at the stall of a fruit vendor, and that, although she was very poorly clad, her pretty face attracted attention.

A shopkeeper took her into his service, but she soon left him to become housemaid under a lady of decent family – a very respectable person. In her house she acquired a taste for novels, and then for the play. She studied the gestures and vocal inflections of the actors, and rendered them with remarkable facility. These talents, neither of which pleased her mistress in the very least, were the cause of her dismissal. It was then that, having heard of a tavern where painters were in the habit of meeting, she conceived the idea of going there to look for employment. Her beauty was then at its height.

She was rescued from this pitfall by a strange chance. Doctor Graham took her to exhibit her at his house, covered with a light veil, as the goddess Hygeia [the goddess of health]. A number of curious people and amateurs went to see her, and the painters were especially delighted. Some time after this exhibition, a painter secured her as a model; he made her pose in a thousand graceful attitudes, which he reproduced on canvas. She now perfected herself in this new sort of talent which made her famous. Nothing, indeed, was more remarkable than the ease Lady Hamilton acquired in spontaneously giving her features an expression of sorrow or of joy, and of posing marvelously to represent different people. Her eyes a-kindle, her hair flying, she showed you a bewitching bacchante; then, all of a sudden, her face expressed grief, and you saw a magnificent repentant Magdalen. The day her husband presented her to me, she insisted on my seeing her in a pose. I was delighted, but she was dressed in everyday clothes, which gave me a shock. I had gowns made for her such as I wore in order to paint in comfort, and which consisted of a kind of loose tunic. She also took some shawls to drape herself with, which she understood very well, and then was ready to render enough different positions and expressions to fill a whole picture gallery. There is, in fact, a collection drawn by Frederic Reimberg, which has been engraved.


Vigee-Lebrun: Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante

To return to the romance of Emma Lyon. It was while she was with the painter I have mentioned that Lord Greville fell so desperately in love with her that he intended to marry her, when he suddenly lost his official place and was ruined. He at once left for Naples in the hope of obtaining help from his Uncle Hamilton, and took Emma with him so that she might plead his cause. The uncle, indeed, consented to pay all his nephew’s debts, but also decided to marry Emma Lyon in spite of his family’s remonstrances. Lady Hamilton became as great a lady as can be imagined. It is asserted that the Queen of Naples was on an intimate footing with her. Certain it is that the Queen saw her often – politically, might perhaps be said. Lady Hamilton, being a most indiscreet woman, betrayed a number of little diplomatic secrets to the Queen, of which she made use to the advantage of her country.

Lady Hamilton was not at all clever, though she was extremely supercilious and disdainful, so much so that these two defects were conspicuous in all her conversation. But she also possessed considerable craftiness, of which she made use in order to bring about her marriage. She lacked style, and dressed very badly when it was a question of everyday attire.


Vigee-Lebrun: Lady Hamilton as the Persian Sibyl

I remember that when I did my first picture of her, as a sibyl, she was living at Caserta, whither I went every day, desiring to progress quickly with the picture. The Duchesse de Fleury and the Princesse Joseph Monaco were present at the third sitting, which was the last. I had wound a scarf round her head in the shape of a turban, one end hanging down in graceful folds. This head-dress so beautified her that the ladies declared she looked ravishing. Her husband having invited us all to dinner, she went to her apartment to change, and when she came back to meet us in the drawing-room, her new costume, which was a very ordinary one indeed, had so altered her to her disadvantage that the two ladies had all the difficulty in the world in recognising her.

When I went to London in 1802 Lady Hamilton had just lost her husband. I left a card for her, and she soon came to see me, wearing deep mourning, with a dense black veil surrounding her, and she had had her splendid hair cut off to follow the new “Titus” fashion. I found this Andromache enormous, for she had become terribly fat. She said that she was very much to be pitied, that in her husband she had lost a friend and a father, and that she would never be consoled. I confess that her grief made little impression upon me, since it seemed to me that she was playing a part. I was evidently not mistaken, because a few minutes later, having noticed some music lying on my piano, she took up a lively tune and began to sing it.

As is well known, Lord Nelson had been in love with her at Naples; she had maintained a very tender correspondence with him. When I went to return her visit one morning, I found her radiant with joy, and besides she had put a rose in her hair, like Nina. I could not help asking her what the rose signified. “It is because I have just received a letter from Lord Nelson,” she answered.

The Duc de Bern and the Duc de Bourbon, having heard of her poses, very much desired to witness a spectacle which she had never been willing to offer in London. I requested her to give me an evening for the two princes, and she consented. I also invited some other French people, who I knew would be anxious to see this sight.

On the day appointed I placed in the middle of my drawing-room a very large frame, with a screen on either side of it. I had had a strong limelight prepared and disposed so that it could not be seen, but which would light up Lady Hamilton as though she were a picture. All the invited guests having arrived, Lady Hamilton assumed various attitudes in this frame in a truly admirable way. She had brought a little girl with her, who might have been seven or eight years old, and who resembled her strikingly. One group they made together reminded me of Poussin’s “Rape of the Sabines.” She changed from grief to joy and from joy to terror so rapidly and effectively that we were all enchanted. As I kept her for supper, the Duc de Bourbon, who sat next to me at table, called my attention to the quantity of port wine she drank. I am sure she must have been used to it, for she was not tipsy after two or three bottles.

Long after leaving London, in 1815, I heard that Lady Hamilton had ended her days at Calais, dying there neglected and forsaken in the most awful poverty.

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13 Comments to “Emma, Lady Hamilton, seen by Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun”

  1. Ron says:

    “Sir William Hamilton, who still resides here as ambassador from
    England, has at length, after his long love of art, and long
    study, discovered the most perfect of admirers of nature and
    art in a beautiful young woman. She lives with him : an
    English woman of about twenty years old. She is very
    handsome, and of a beautil figure. The old knight has
    had made for her a Greek costume, which becomes her ex-
    tremely. Dressed in this, and letting her hair loose, and
    taking a couple of shawls, she exhibits every possible variety
    of posture, expression, and look, so that at the last the spec-
    tator almost fancies it is a dream. One beholds here in per-
    fection, in movement, in ravishing variety, aU that the greatest
    of artists have rejoiced to be able to produce. Standing,
    kneeling, sitting, lying down, grave or sad, playftd, ex-
    ulting, repentant, wanton, menacing, anxious — all mental
    states foUow rapidly one after another. With wonderful
    taste she suits the folding of her veil to each expression, and
    with the same handkerchief makes every kind of head-dress.
    The old knight holds the light for her, and enters into the
    exhibition with his whole soul. He thinks he can discern
    in her a resemblance to all the most famous antiques, all the
    beautiful profiles on the Sicilian coins — aye, of the Apollo
    Belvedere itself. This much at any rate is certain — ^the
    entertainment is unique. We spent two evenings on it with
    thorough enjoyment. To-day Tischbein is engaged in paint-
    ing her.”

  2. Woops!
    I must have been so impressed, that I wrote my name wrong.

    So I will have to say it again:

    Wonderful !

    Chris Cleutjens

  3. You have a wonderful blog.
    And I could say it again.

    Magnifique !

    Chris Cleutjens

  4. Jen says:

    Susan, we might have bumped into each other unwittingly – I was at the Clark this weekend, too! My first time there – what a lovely museum! The Vigee-Lebrun painting was a nice surprise. I was lucky enough to see a lot of her works on exhibit at the Louvre last summer.

  5. Susan Flantzer says:

    I was visiting some friends in Massachusetts this weekend and we went to the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown where I saw Marie Louise Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun’s “Portrait of Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante.” Here’s a link to the painting: http://www.clarkart.edu/museum/content.cfm?ID=210

  6. Lisa says:

    Emma told a good story, I must say! I read that she actually worked at a high-class brothel and Lord Greville sent her to his uncle because he had huge debts and needed to marry someone of his own class.

    However, she was really much brighter than we’ve been led to believe. She spoke fluent Italian and she was a good friend of the Queen of Naples.

  7. Miss Moppet says:

    I know there’s a bit in Mme de Boigne’s memoirs about her in Naples that is rather less than flattering, but I can’t lay my hand on it at the moment. I think Emma had a talent for attracting attention which other women didn’t always appreciate.

    The film That Hamilton Woman with Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh is lots of fun but also shows the sad end Emma came to.

  8. Penny says:

    thank you Catherine, I had not known anything of Emma Hamilton except for the Lord Nelson connection. Is it true that in his will he left her to the nation, thinking they would actually care about her? Secondly it sounds like she would have made money on the stage if her life had not taken the turn it did to wife and then mistress which of course must have been quite a scandal. Was Lord Nelson also betraying a spouse to be with her?

  9. Thank you, Audra and Jen. Yes, it is disturbing to read about young Emma’s alcohol consumption. Hers had not been an easy life… I heartily recommend Louise-Elisabeth’s Memoirs. A fascinating story, and a great source of information on 18th century Europe.

  10. Jen says:

    Such an excellent post! Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s paintings are absolutely lovely, as usual. I think I would like to read her memoirs after tasting them in this post.

  11. Audra says:

    Fantastic post — I love both Lady Hamilton and Vigée-Lebrun, so this was particularly delightful to read. It makes me wish for a novel about the two of them — the anecdote about Lady Hamilton’s tolerance to port is such an amusing, saddening, interesting human detail.

  12. Oh, yes, Melanie! What a sad story.

  13. Melanie says:

    A lovely post!

    Poor Emma. I always feel so sorry for her!

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